Foodborne pathogens

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Food Poisoning

Food poisoning is usually brought about by typhoid- and paratyphoid agents and botulism bacteria, that their toxins preferably secrete into meat, screw, shellfish, cheese, vegetables and all kinds of food cans. Sometimes the poisoning of stafylokokken attributable. Their toxins are more resistant to heat than the other.

By violent vomiting and diarrhea the patient loses significant amounts of water, proteins and salt, so that his condition is extremely critical fast. The first helper creates breathing and CPR, then attempts to remove the poison and bring the victim immediately to hospital, where the soil moisture deficit can be supplemented. All suspected food must be destroyed.

Infections of the gastrointestinal tract by bacteria, especially Salmonellae en shigellae, of door amoeben causes. Salmonellae are rod-shaped bacteria, that move with their long lashes. Of the more than 1000 to date there are only two major types of dangerous for the human: the generators of typhoid in paratyfus. All other use preferably birds (pets) als gastheer. Numerous animals incidentally germ carriers without being ill themselves.

Other less common culprits of food poisoning in our region are Shigella-bacteriën, Vibrio cholerae, Entamoeba histolytica in virushepatitis. These culprits may give rise to diarrhea, hard stools, dark stools, after stoelgang, constipation or bloating and viral hepatitis, yellow stool.

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Salmonellae

Salmonella months remain alive and to milk, meat, Owner, water, ice and contaminate foods. Direct transfer from animals to humans is rare. The number samonellosen takes in our countries to, partly due to the import of food from different countries with less extensive hygiene regulations. Numerous unknown salmonella are introduced by us by the tourist traffic to foreign countries. However, the number of cases of typhoid and paratyphoid decreases. To a bacterial infection of the stomach (gastritis) or of the small intestine (enteritis) to trigger millions of salmonella needed. Their toxins are released when the constituent of the bacterium is resolved. This poisoning illnesses, which, moreover, also be caused by other bacteria, begin after an incubation period of a few hours with vomiting, nausea, fever and severe diarrhea, that dehydratieverschijnselen (dehydration) may entail. You may experience cramps in the legs, especially the calves. Blood pressure drops significantly. In diarrhea remains 2 to 3 days persist. The temperature usually drops previously.

However, this severe form is relatively rare. Infants and small children should be protected from dehydration, If necessary, in the hospital. The patients are usually in the early aversion to food, so that the necessary hunger break can be easily adjusted. Typically, the infusion of additional fluids are not necessarily. Usually one recovers quickly.

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Tyfus in Paratyfus

Typhoid and paratyphoid fever are caused by only a few salmonella. The disease develops slowly, because agents must first multiply in the body. The salmonella from typhoid (typhus abdominalis = buiktyfus) and the form of typhoid paratyphoid penetrate through the circulation (Blood and lymphatic) all organs of the body, while the second form of paratyphoid and gastroenteritis salmonella only the stomach and intestine and thus seize local work. The typhoid pathogens come with food or drinks in the gut, penetrate the intestinal wall into the lymphatic vessels, multiply in the lymph nodes of caul and return via the bloodstream back to the intestine back.

After an incubation period of 1 to 2 weeks of fever during the first week rises gradually to 40C. Laminitis, headache, lack of appetite increase. The salmonella multiply in the lymph nodes of the small intestine; There will be swelling and ulcers formed, in the second week cracks, so that the bacteria can penetrate the organs. The blockage of the first week is then replaced by a pulpy stools. The fever continues in the morning and evening at the same height (40° C). The pulse is slow, spleen swells and the meninges are already stimulated. Between the 9th and the 25th day join light red spots the size of a predicted button (roseola) on the trunk and limbs. In the third week the remains of the ulcers in the small intestine are repelled. This creates the risk of bleeding, breakthrough of the intestinal wall and peritonitis. Almost always great gasophopingen formed. In diarrhea continues, as well as the fever. At this stage it is feared heart- circulatory disorders and thrombosis, inflammations of the lung, the bile ducts and the meninges.

From the 4th week the fever drops, reduces diarrhea and unblocks the spleen. The convalescence then takes at least a month. Great hunger of the physically and mentally still very unstable patient indicates the beginning of the healing.

With modern antibiotics, the mortality rate of typhoid decreased significantly and the duration of the disease shortens. However, a cautious convalescence under medical supervision is needed to prevent recidivism. The isolation of the patient must be removed when no longer pathogens in stool and urine are found.

Who has had typhoid is usually, but not always, for his entire life immune. The active vaccine protects only half a year against typhoid and paratyphoid, recommended that the easier dragees (typhoral) to be taken into.

Paratyphoid occurs in two forms in, of which the typhoid in most cases, proceeds milder than the second form. The incubation period is 3 to 9 days. The fever is not very high and complications are rare. Swelling of the spleen and bronchitis are among the syndrome. The rash is more extensive and covers arms and legs. The central nervous system is not disturbed, however,. The second form of paratyphoid is almost identical with bacterial gastroenteritis: Only agents differ. The treatment is the same as in related infections.

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Clostridium botulinum

More dangerous even than the toxins of salmonella are the toxins of Clostridium botulinum, a bacterium that no oxygen for its development needs and therefore abundant in food cans. Sometimes the bacterium forms a gas in the decaying food, so the can may have a different shape. However, this is not always the case,: apparently normal cans may be contaminated. Between the ingestion of the poison (0,000001 gis sufficient to kill the human) and the first symptoms are most 12 to 36 Hour. The disease begins with mild, general complaints, dizziness and visual disturbances (double vision, strabismus). Then touch the tear- and salivary glands exhausted, followed by speaking, so- and respiratory complaints and other paralyzes the central nervous system is shut down. This malignant progression can be slowed down by timely treatment. If the slightest suspicion, foods that were not quite right, should immediately consult a physician. In the early stage braking must be generated and stomach pumped. Treatment with serum botulism poisoning may slow process.

It is recommended that the contents of cans never raw on serve (in salads e. d.), but 20 minutes by heating to destroy the toxins at 100 ° C. Suspect foods should be discarded.

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Dysentery

Dysentery can be caused by bacteria or amoebas are caused. The immobile Shigella-bacteriën affect the mucous membrane of the large intestine and form superficial ulcers of the toxins from which work in the whole body. The toxins are released when the bacteria are. The agents of the not common in Europe bacillary dysentery separate their toxins immediately, so that the body does not have time to take counter-measures. Two types of less toxic Shigellae still occur in our countries and bring disease phenomena, resembling dysentery but milder expire and are often not recognized as shigellosen.

Dysentery begins after an incubation period of 2 to 6 days with moderate fever, headache, painful cramps, vomiting and diarrhea malodorous, the earliest is slimy and blood or pus may contain. The particular recurring urge (sometimes up to 40 Once a day) is difficult and painful. Due to the considerable loss of moisture should be on the balance of water- and electrolyte balance be paid; optionally infusions should be administered. The causative agent is treated with antibiotics. The doctor will decide if and when a filling may be administered. Bed rest and diet are necessary: the first day of grated apple and tea without sugar, later soup, unemployed enz.

Dysentery can easily become chronic. Not infrequently occur as a result of the disease rheumatic complaints. To avoid contact infection, the patient remains isolated in the stool five days no bacteria contains. Amoebic dysentery is caused by Entamoeba histolytica, an amoeba that travelers from the tropics to bring home unnoticed, because the incubation period 1 to 4 takes weeks and the infection can remain asymptomatic for years. The amoeba attacks the lining of the colon to, where inflammation and ulcers. Sometimes the liver affected. The visible symptoms are slimy stools, mixed with blood, violent and painful urge chair, slight increase in temperature, fatigue. In stools are tough, resembles raspberry jelly and the like is not turbid after stoelgang bacillary dysentery bij. The condition is treated successfully with modern means. Who is susceptible to infections, may, prior to teis take preventive medicines to fight pathogens.

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Cholera

Cholera is caused by a comma-shaped bacterium (Vibrio cholerae), which multiplies in water and in large numbers in the gut goes down. As a result, come free toxins, very rapidly cause severe diarrhea which bring about, with all the consequences that (dehydration etc.). The agent does not need an intermediate host, but is transmitted by direct contact with contaminated water and food (eg. water of the Ganges in India). Cholera occurs in Europe no longer. In unskilled treatment 30 to 50% of patients die. Patients should be strictly isolated (quarantine). Vaccination is only three weeks after the injection works and protects six months.

virushepatitis

A still unknown virus expresses virus hepatitis (ook hepatitis infectiosa of hepatitis epidemica) cause, especially in late summer, , inter alia, by contact with contaminated water and food. A related form serum hepatitis, which also is caused by insufficient and is transferred by a sterilized medical instruments virus (injection needles, especially among drug users who inject, etc..) and infusion fluids. In our countries, infectious jaundice occurs regularly, sometimes even in the form of small epidemics in schools e. d. Because the disease is of an ordinary jaundice can not be immediately distinguished, a doctor must be consulted immediately. Relatives, especially pregnant women and children, may seek to inject gammaglobulins, provided the contact is not too long ago. These are protein components of the blood, which antibodies are formed against hostile invaders. Gammaglobulins usually protect 2 to 3 months. The usefulness of gamma globulins after infecting contact is controversial.

By hepatitis virus liver cells, the bile pigments (bilirubin) not hold and dispose of in the intestine via the bile ducts. This excess bilirubin enters the bloodstream and from there into the tissues; hence the yellow discoloration of the feces.

The yellow color is first seen in the sclera. The urine is dark like beer, while the stool remains virtually colorless. In the early stages, that can last from days to weeks, are symptoms characteristic: pain in the joints, the limbs and head. If the disease breaks follow nausea and vomiting, disgust for fat and roasts, coffee, nicotine alcohol. The patients feel, that a tight strap around their upper right abdomen is pulled. Only then the tissues begin to turn yellow. The liver and the spleen swell. The urine decreases. Constipation and bloating occur. When suddenly a lot of urine is discharged, it may be assumed, that the peak of the illness is over. The fever is mild and decreases, as soon as the actual jaundice (icterus) begins.

Against viral hepatitis are no special resources. Although modern insights doubt gave rise to the usefulness of certain measures, are often strict bed rest and an easily digestible and leversparend diet prescribed. Under no circumstances should drugs occupy themselves, because the liver is already difficult enough,. After a six-week reconvalescentietijd (the patient should not go to work, even though he feels good), one must still spared months and especially no alcohol, coffee or nicotine. At approximately 10% of patients may experience complications or non-reversible liver lesions for. Sometimes a chronic jaundice.

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